06 octubre 2005

glosario y conceptos de iconología (a marcus)

Para los interesados en la conceptualización y categorización de factores, elementos componentes visuales de interfaces y documentos electrónicos resulta descriptivo y concreto el vocabulario aportado y definido por técnicos (de usabilidad y demás) como Aaron Marcus (and assoc.: amanda.com). Cercano a la semiótica, al menos durante unos años, presenta este glosario en interactions (vol 10, n 3 (2003), pgs 37-43):
* Icons: signs that are self-evident, "natural," or "realistic" for a particular group of interpreters, like a photograph of a person, a "realistic" painting, or a right-pointing arrow to indicate something should move or is to the right.
* Ideograms: symbols that stand for ideas or concepts, for example, the letter "i" standing for "information," "help desk," or "information available."
* Index: a special semiotics term for signs that are linked by cause-and-effect in space and time, like a photograph representing a scene, or a fingerprint on the coffee mug at the scene of the crime.
* Lexics: the attributes of how one produces signs, for example, with color or black-and-white raster-scan displays.
* Phonograms: symbols that stand for sounds, for example, the letter "s."
* Pictogram: an icon (or sometimes symbol) that has clear pictorial similarities with some object, like the person or men's room sign that (for some interpreters) appears to be a simplified drawing of a (specifically, male) human being.
* Pragmatics: the uses of signs by receivers, including their emotional, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics, for example, how memorable or appealing the signs are.
* Semantics: the reference of a sign to some object, structure, process, or concept; often referred to popularly as its "meaning," like a dictionary definition, or its denotations and connotations.
* Semiotics: the science of signs. One might call designing icons and symbols "applied visual semiotics."
* Signs: perceivable (or conceivable) objects that convey "meaning."
* Symbols: signs that are usually meaningful by convention and are often abstract, like the letters of this sentence or a national flag.
* Syntax: the arrangement of signs in space and time, especially their visual attributes such as color, size, and shape.

Sobre el asunto ya había publicado "Icon and symbol design issues for graphical user interfaces en International users interface table of contents (pgs. 257-270, 1996, ISBN:0-471-14965-9, ref en el portal ACM.

Otra bibliografía:
Marcus, Aaron, "Visual Rhetoric in a Pictographic-Ideographic Narrative," Semiotics Unfolding, Proceedings of the Second Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies, Vienna, July 1979, Ed. Tasso Borbé, Vol. 3, Part 6, Mouton Publishers, Berlin, 1983, ISBN 3-11-009779-6, pp. 1501-1508. The author presents a collection of rhetorical tropes and applies them to a visual-verbal narrative.

Marcus, Aaron, "Designing for Diversity," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society , 37th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 11-15 October 1993, Volume 1, pp.258-261.

Marcus, Aaron, Graphic Design for Electronic Documents and User Interfaces, Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1992.

Marcus, Aaron, "Human Communication Issues in Advanced UIs," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 36, No. 4. April 1993, pp. 101-109.

Marcus, Aaron, "Principles of Effective Visual Communication for Graphical User Interface Design," Readings in Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Edition, Ed. Baecker, Grudin, Buxton, and Greenberg, Morgan Kaufman, Palo Alto, 1995, pp. 425-441. ISBN: 1-55860-246-1.
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